The biography of M.Tynyshpaev

           M.Tynyshpaev - Kazakh public figure, the deputy of the Second State Duma of Russia, the prime minister of Turkestan autonomy, the member of Alash Orda, the first Kazakh engineer participated in developing and construction the Turkestan-Siberian highway. Mukhamedzhan Tynyshpaev was born on the 12th of May 1879 in Zhylandy foothills of Makanshi-Sadyrovsk district of Lepsinsk district of Semirechenskaya region.


          During the period of 1899-1900 he studied at Vernensk gymnasium.

          In 1900 he entered the Imperial Institute of Railway Engineers named after Alexander I in St. Petersburg.

          M.Tynyshpayev passed his final exams and defended the course project "Construction of Turkestan-Siberian Railway" in 1905. He became the first Kazakh railroad engineer.

         Labor activity

         1906. Tynyshpayev began working as an engineer for the reconstruction of Central Asian Railway from Krasnovodsk to Chardzhou in 1906. He took an active part in construction the bridge from metal structures instead of old and wooden bridge across the Amu Darya River.

         He participated in the exploratory expedition of A. Golembievsky on developing the route of future Turkestan-Siberian railway in the South from Arys station to the Ili River in 1007.

         During the period of 1907 to 1910 he worked as an engineer for the construction of Ashgabat-Tashkent railway.

         Since 1911 Mukhamedzhan Tynyshpayev was the head of department, later as the chief engineer of railway construction on Ursatievskaya - Andijan section.

         In 1914 he participated in construction of the southern part of Semirechensk road (it is the beginning of Turksib). Later he was the head of railway line section, and the chief engineer of the line from Arys to Aulie-Ata (at present Taraz).

         In 1921 M. Tynyshpaev was appointed as the head of Water Management Department of Turkestan People’s Commissariat of Agriculture in Tashkent.

         In 1922 People’s Commissariat of Agriculture had appointed him to a similar position in Shymkent.

         In the 22nd of July 1922 he returned to Tashkent after the death of his wife Gulbakhram.

         In 1925 he was appointed to the position of chief engineer. At this period he participated in developing Perovsk city (former Ak-Mosque), which was renamed to Kyzyl-Orda from Orenburg of the new capital of the Kazakh ASSR.

         From the 1st of March, 1926 he was the head of road department of Semirechye province in Alma-Ata. Alma-Ata-Pishpek, Alma-Ata-Taldy-Kurgan and Alma-Ata-Khorgos roads were constructed at this period.

         Political activity

        In 1907 he was elected to the State Duma of the II convocation of Semirechensk region. He was a member of Muslim faction, Siberian group and the member of Agrarian Commission.

        In 1916 he was arrested for participating in the uprising of Kazakh population in Steppe region.

        As a delegate from Semirechensk region M. Tynyshpayev had participated in the first All-Kyrgyz Congress in Orenburg and was nominated as a delegate to All-Russian Constituent Assembly in July of 1917.

        In November 1917 he became the prime minister of Turkestan autonomy in Kokand. By the reason of divergence with foreign minister Mustafa Chokay, he left his position and returned to Tashkent.

        In the 3rd of August 1930 Mukhamedzhan Tynyshpaev was arrested.

        On the 20th of April 1932 he had been exiled for 5 years to Voronezh. There he worked under the supervision in the construction of a new railway Moscow - Donetsk.

        He was arrested again as a former member of "Alash" and was shot as an enemy in November 21, 1937.

        Scientific activity

       In 1924 he worked as a teacher of mathematics and physics at Kazakh Pedagogical Institute which was opened in Tashkent (at present Kazakh National Pedagogical University named after Abay, locating in Almaty).

  1. He had collected the information on the origin of zhuzes;
  2. He had described the history of Kazakh generation;
  3. He had compiled tables on the genealogy of genera with brief descriptions of the life and death of khans, batyrs, biys, akins;
  4. He had lectured in Turkestan department of Russian Geographical Society;
  5. He had published his following researches: "Koksu mound and Kailak settlement", "Historical information about the population of Tashkent district", "Kazakhs of XVII-XVIII century", "Victories and defeats of Kazakhs", "Materials on the history of Kirghiz-Kazakh people".


        By the insistence of Turar Ryskulov M. Tynyshpaev was included in Construction Assistance Committee on developing Turksib in January 1927. He had participated in the development of railway track project (known as the Chokparsk). By the insistence of M. Tynyshpaev the construction of Turksib was reduced for a year and allowed to save 25 million rubles.

        In 1928 he insisted on Balkhash version of the route as opposed to Lepsinsky, which had saved about a million rubles during the construction and a hundred thousand rubles in a year for the operation of railway. He had participated in the designing and construction of Alma-Ata-I station.

        The head of Turksib construction V. Shatov appointed Mukhamedzhan Tynyshpayev as the head of production department in 1929.


         Muhamedjan Tynyshpaev was rehabilitated by the decision of Supreme Court of the Kazakh SSR in September 29, 1959 and in February of 1970 by the USSR Prosecutor's Office and the Military Prosecutor of Turkestan Military District.

         The first monument of the great Kazakh railway engineer was opened in Kargalinka village in 1993.

         Kazakh Academy of Transport and Communications was named after M. Tynyshpaev in 23rd of May 2000.

         The museum and the monument of M.Tynyshpaev were opened in Sarkand city in 2007.

         Academy’s life

        The Kazakh Academy of Transport and Communications named after M. Tynyshpaev is the higher educational institution keeping the name and wise heritage of the first Kazakh engineer M. Tynyshpaev. Household items of Mukhamedzhan Tynyshpayev are stored at the museum of the Academy.

       The library of the Academy has a special department devoted to works of Mukhamedzhan Tynyshpaev. Scientific articles and books about his labor activities and life are stored at this department and became the property of our students.

    Solemn laying flowers is devoted to the birthday of Mukhamedzhan Tynyshpaev is held annually. Relatives and friends of Mukhamedzhan Tynyshpaev are invited to this event.

       The Academy honors the memory of Mukhamedzhan Tynyshpaev. Students act with poems of own composition, devoted to the memory of M. Tynyshpaev.

       Thus, the memory about Mukhamedzhan Tynyshpaev, his life and activity is widely propagandized among the students. He became an exemplify for students of our academy.